Elizabeth also was obviously comfortable presenting herself as both virginal and as a mother to her nation. These representations will be analyzed specifically to illustrate the keen primacy of gender and sex to Elizabeth's identity formation — both by herself and others — in the cultural imaginary. Marcus's earlier examinations of the ways in which the Queen managed her self-representation to augment her political power. These chaste exemplars of a male-protected virtue contrasted sharply with the militant and sovereign virginity the Queen had always represented herself as possessing. Thomas Platter's journal reprinted in Peter Razell, ed.
The mid-1580s were a time of crisis for the English that in many ways continued for the rest of the reign. Robert Cecil, 1st Earl of Salisbury, c. In ways which varied with social class and historical circumstance, the London merchants, the members of the Protestant faction, courtly artists and artful courtiers all sought to stabilize their own gendered identities by constructing the queen within the 'natural'definitions of feminine as passive and weak. National Portrait Gallery, London Plate 2. Frye's readings take in literary representations e. She and those closely identified with her interests evolved a number of strategies through which to express her political control in terms of the ownership of her body, including her elaborate iconography and a mythic biography upon which most accounts of Elizabeth's life have been based. All quotations from Shakespeare's plays are taken from this edition and future references, identified by line number, appear in the text.
In the construction of Elizabeth Tudor over time a set of interlinked types of images persists. Based on a variety of extant historical and literary materials, Frye's interpretation focuses on three representational crises spaced fifteen years apart: the London coronation of 1559, the Kenilworth entertainments of 1575, and the publication of The Faerie Queene in 1590. She and those closely identified with her interests evolved a number of strategies through which to express her control of the government as the ownership of her body, including her elaborate iconography and a mythic biography upon which most accounts of Elizabeth's life have been based. Private Collection on loan to National Portrait Gallery, London Plate 4. Thomas Nashe, Pierce Penilesse his Supplication to the Deuil 1592 'Scolar Press Facsimile'; Aldsershot: Scolar Press, 1969 , p. Building on the work of many other scholars and carefully examining contemporary texts so that notes and bibliography occupy a quarter of this book's pages , Frye establishes Elizabeth's resistance to the court's prevailing masculine discourse of domination and even rape.
This revisionist study examines her struggle for authority through the representation of her female body. I confess I have sucked in so much of the sad story of Queen Elizabeth, from my cradle, that I was ready to weep for her sometimes. However, notions of virginity changed dramatically during the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, affecting the use of one of the central somatic metaphors of Elizabethan cultural and political discourse. Ten plays are listed as 'Histories' in the First Folio of Shakespeare's collected works. As such they are not fully embodied in the plays so much as discursive ghosts, shapers of characters and scenes as part of larger narratives, inescapable frames of experience, uncanny contours of presence and absence.
At the same time, even as authors celebrate the queen, often furthering a sense of national identity in the process, their use of the literary device may in fact reveal more than superficial laudation. As the conflicts with Spain became more intense, the English perceived Spanish involvement in both the Netherlands and France as dangerous to their own security. When Queen Elizabeth I appeared before her troops at Tilbury during the Spanish Armada, she helped to create an image of her relation to England. Elizabeth I: The Competition for Representation. .
The more authoritative her image became, the more violently it was contested in a process which this book examines and consciously perpetuates. It then explores how the military bureaucracy sought to exploit the propagandistic value of commissioned war paintings to stimulate the public to greater sacrifice for the war effort. See Women, History and Theory: The Essays of Joan Kelly Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1984 , pp. That the Merchant Adventurers sponsored The Queen's Majesty's Pageant 1559 indicated not only the company's desire to win the new queen's favor, but represented the necessity of economic cooperation between the Crown and London's mercantile interests. In this passage, the heroine, Eveline Berenger, goes around the walls of the fortress haranguing the different nations that make up her army, as if she were a general in a description of a battle in ancient historiography.
Chapter 1 explains how Elizabeth I's coronation entry 1559 begins the task of creating a workable mode of representation. This chapter examines developments in Japanese painting during the period 1937—1952. But her subjects in northern England and Wales, Ireland, the people who populated the royal courts of European states, an undetermined number of Muslims, and select groups of peoples in the Americas only knew Elizabeth through secondhand sources. National Portrait Gallery, London Plate 10. But Frye's book goes beyond a simple explication of how Elizabeth used an iconic virginity to achieve political power. Based on a variety of extant historical and literary materials, Frye's interpretation focuses on three representational crises spaced fifteen years apart: the London coronation of 1559, the Kenilworth entertainments of 1575, and the publication of The Faerie Queene in 1590. This was an act the N.
For Barnabe Googe, in The Popish Kingdome, or Reigne of Antichrist 1570 , papal triumphs represent mere temporal presumption. Plate 2 The Bibliotheque Nationale, Paris. This article shows that the existing picture of the English preparations is flawed in several ways and that they were better organized, more efficient and more willing than has been recognized. Court of Appeals, which declared that the May 1, 2007 order appointing attorney Bryan C. Mary I presented herself through the familiar and subordinate metaphor of female domestication wife and mother to her country , while James I, predictably, entered London as the bridegroom entering the bride.
A shift becomes visible in drama, the visual arts, and in historical text during the 1620s and 1630s, when Elizabeth's armor and speech first gained importance as the queen's supposed militant Protestantism became an icon of national unity. Frye demonstrates total familiarity with earlier works on Elizabeth's representation and image-making and uses them as the basis for her own expansion of the topic. The reproduction of black and white images in the paperback edition could be clearer, but that is a minor flaw in an otherwise informative book. It was during a performance of this play that the Globe theatre was burned to the ground on June 29th of that year. The untraditional and undefined role of queen regnant raised questions about the nature of female sovereignty. A woman wielding power was out of the ordinary, unnatural—even frightening—because she embraced a traditionally masculine role. As a result, London merchants often refused her requests for loans or credit.