New York: The Viking Press. The article describes the halting and underfunded efforts of the German administration to create legible landscapes, and it pays particular attention to German warfare and violence in the Herero War of 1904. Economic policy in the Third Reich followed Neuer Plan, with a series of discriminatory measures and a reorientation of foreign trade towards Eastern Europe and. His analysis of the Russo-German War from a German perspective covers all aspects of the eastern front, demonstrating the interrelation of military events, economic policy, resource exploitation, and racial policy that first motivated the invasion. This article examines the debate over the uniqueness of the Holocaust as it has recently unfolded in the United States. Privileged European trading companies were also employed in Atlantic trade, such as the Royal African Company and the Hudson's Bay Company, the Dutch West India Company and corresponding French companies.
Kellenbenz, Hermann: Neues zum oberdeutschen Ostindienhandel, insbesondere der Herwart in der ersten Hälfte des 16. Following the recent publication of books on the allegedly genocidal nature of German colonialism and the role of the Herero and Nama wars 1904-07 as a precursor of and model for the German war of extermination in Eastern Europe 1939-45 , the essay will critically examine the allegedly 'exceptional' character of the German colonial wars within the broader trans-national context of colonial violence. The establishment of the Portuguese empire in India made European-Asian relationships more permanent and secure. He argues that this new global trend in historiography needs to be supported by a corresponding increase in transnational dialogue, cooperation and exchange. It also seeks to identify the central driving forces behind the successive periods of intensification of trade and interaction from the late Middle Ages to the modern period. These brought about a lasting improvement in the terms of trade of the countries involved, thereby providing a relatively well-ordered and secure economic basis for the formation of. When quoting this article please add the date of your last retrieval in brackets after the url.
Tocqueville's justification of the French conquest and colonization of Algeria is not merely a blind spot of an otherwise liberal and enlightened thinker. Those experiments included sterilization, injection of , as well as. Kalus, Maximilian: Pfeffer — Kupfer — Nachrichten: Kaufmannsnetzwerke und Handelsstrukturen im europäisch-asiatischen Handel am Ende des 16. Ewald, Ursula: Pflanzen Iberoamerikas und ihre Bedeutung für Europa: Überlegungen aus geographischer Sicht, in: Jahrbuch für Geschichte von Staat, Wirtschaft und Gesellschaft Lateinamerikas, 32 1995 , pp. The sacralization of the person and universal human rights will only be secure in the future, warns Joas, through continued support by institutions and society, vigorous discourse in their defense, and their incarnation in everyday life and practice. Kellenbenz, Hermann: Handelsgeschichte, in: Willi Albers et al.
India's development and modernization policies and programmes are integrated into the discussion of the two case studies. In 1932, Britain forfeited its policy of free trade and gave precedence to the Commonwealth. This system of trade remained dominant from the 17th to the early 19th century, at which point the increasingly pervasive shifted the focus of trade in Africa. Liulevicius The Conquest of Nature and the Mystique of the Eastern Frontier in Nazi Germany; D. . This article discusses the introduction of the welfare state in late colonial Africa.
Similarly, the phase of growth in transcontinental trade in the 16th century was accompanied by advances in and intercontinental shipping. Drawing on the wider history of European expansion and globalisation he highlights the close interactions and shared vocabularies of the colonial powers and emphasises Germany's major role in the period of high imperialism before 1914. Those who controlled the ocean had a position of hegemony in intercontinental mercantilist trade. The present is particularly well described in Oliver Schmidtke's essay. In the two periods of weak European growth, growth in maritime trade in the overseas regions was not particularly spectacular either.
Fischer also subjected them to numerous racial tests such as head and body measurements, and eye and hair examinations. Germany's colonial empire was officially confiscated with the after Germany's defeat in the war and the various units became mandates under the supervision but not ownership of one of the victorious powers. In the archaic societies of and , where low population density meant that migration and innovation rarely became necessary, this form of land ownership persisted for a long time, surviving into the 19th century in some cases. Agreements and treaties with other colonial powers or interests followed, and purchases of land or island groups. New vegetable types such as tomatoes, peppers and pumpkins, and nuts and fruits from avocados and pineapples to guavas and papayas appeared on European tables. Hendrich, Yvonne: Valentin Fernandes: Ein deutscher Buchdrucker in Portugal um die Wende vom 15.
It was, he said, a burden and an expense, and he would like to saddle someone else with it. This essay critically engages with the current scholarly debate about 'connecting lines' and structural similarities between European colonialism and German National Socialism. However, the rapid of Central, Western and required considerable. Soon, however, colonial governments and politicians had to realize that their social policies created massive problems, but did not stabilize neither the colonial economies nor the ideological basis of colonial authority. Kutz, Martin: Deutschlands Außenhandel von der Französischen Revolution bis zur Gründung des Zollvereins, Wiesbaden 1974 Beihefte der Vierteljahrschrift für Sozial- und Wirtschaftsgeschichte 61. The international currency system disintegrated, and in 1914 countries such as , Germany and France abandoned the convertibility of their currencies into gold.
Successful German plantation operators realized the benefits of systematic scientific inquiry and instituted and maintained their own stations with their own personnel, who further engaged in exploration and documentation of the native fauna and flora. An economic transformation occurred, which introduced new institutional forms, a liberal economic and social order, and a radical integration of world markets. Europe, the Orient and Asia Leaving aside classical antiquity, territorial expansion from Europe towards Asia can be traced back to the period of the crusades, which lasted from the end of the 11th to the 13th century. The result was several military and genocidal campaigns by the Germans against the natives. Migration and communication were the real accelerating factors of European history. Quebracho trees and various species of mangrove provided tannic acid. On the contrary, during the great depression in the 14th and 15th centuries, the conquests of the Turks and, in particular, the Mongol Tatars deprived European trade of access to important markets in the.