For general two-point functions, a substitute to the Wick rotation is defined both in complex space-time and in the complex mass variable, and substantial results concerning the derivation of Kallen-Lehmann type representation are obtained. This volume, which grew from a recent doctoral school sponsored by the Italian Society of Relativity and Gravitation, brings together contributions from leading authorities to provide a review of recent developments in the study of the astrophysical black holes that inhabit nearby galaxies and distant quasars. As astronomical sources, they are part of our cosmic landscape, warping space-time, coupled to the large-scale properties and life cycle of their host galaxy, and perhaps even linked to galaxy formation. They are essential for a comprehension of the non-perturbative aspects of string theory, in particular, in connection with string dualities. Chapters cover an extensive array of topics, from refined experimental techniques in gravitational physics to cosmology and the quantum frontier.
In the second model we study the evolution of inhomogeneities of the baryon component. Our method is free of the divergences that appear in earlier treatments. Black holes are among the most mysterious objects that the human mind has been capable of imagining. These developments have spawned a new area of physics that centers on the interplay between particle physics and 1st Edition M. As astronomical sources, they are part of our cosmic landscape, warping space-time, coupled to the large-scale properties and life cycle of their host galaxy, and perhaps even linked to galaxy formation. Comment: 8 pages, revtex style, minor stylistic changes, typos corrected.
Written by international experts, this reference presents up-to-date information on classical relativity, astrophysics, and theoretical and experimental particle physics. The book opens with a lucid introduction to the basic aspects of branes in string theory. As pure mathematical constructions, they are tools for exploiting the fundamental laws of physics. The book starts with an introduction which gives the background linking experimental gravity in cosmic laboratories to astrophysics and fundamental physics. The book begins with a general introduction, followed by five parts that cover several modern aspects of the subject, ranging from the observational and the experimental to the more theoretical and mathematical issues.
The aim of this series is to provide a library of books to meet the needs of students and researchers in these fields. This implies a modification ofthe standard canonical quantization rules. It shows how the quest for a deeper theory, which would possibly incorporate gravity in the quantum realm, is more than ever an open field. Applications to the Milne and de Sitter universes are discussed as examples. As astronomical sources, they are part of our cosmic landscape, warping space-time, coupled to the large-scale properties and life cycle of their host galaxy, and perhaps even linked to galaxy formation.
We study particle decay in de Sitter space-time as given by first order perturbation theory in an interacting quantum field theory. The anomaly is a covariant field which can be used to select the physical subspace of finite codimension where the homogeneous tachyonic field equation holds in the usual form. These theories are restrictions to the brane of the ambient AdS field theory considered. Comment: 8 pages, 6 figures, to be published in the Proceedings of the Invisible Universe International Conference, Paris, 2009, Ed. The Fock—Hilbert—Krein structure associated with the model in a local and covariant formulation is constructed and its unconventional features, like the existence of translationally invariant field operators and states other than the vacuum , the implementation of the symmetries, etc.
Thus, it appears that the viability of the generalized Chaplygin gas as a cosmological model is stronger when its sound velocity is superluminal. From the mathematical viewpoint, branes are related to several important theories, such as homological mirror symmetry and quantum cohomology. We construct the Wick-ordered exponential of the dipole field, an infrared singular field. Turning philosophical and metaphysical problems into problems that physics can treat, and hopefully solve, has been an achievement of the twentieth century. We first elaborate on a kind of correspondence existing between tachyons and minimally coupled scalar fields; corresponding theories give rise to the same cosmological evolution for a particular choice of the initial conditions but not for any other. Among these are young dense clusters YoDeCs , globular cluster and the nuclei of galaxies. We propose a general framework for quantum field theory on the de Sitter space-time i.
In particular, we show that the widespread belief of the conjecture that the source of scalar gravity must be the trace of the energy-momentum tensor - which is one of the main difficulties to couple gravity with electromagnetic phenomenon in previous models - does not apply to our geometric scalar theory. As pure mathematical constructions, they are tools for exploiting the fundamental laws of physics. In particular, for open Friedmann-Robertson-Walker universes modes which are not L2-normalizable may exist, and there is a controversy whether or not they contribute to the quantum fluctuations. Summary Black holes are among the most mysterious objects that the human mind has been capable of imagining. By exploiting the Krein-Hilbert structure associated with the local and covariant quantization of the model, we can characterize, in a simple way, the possible physical interpretation, prove that the breaking of spacetime translation is inevitable in the physical space mechanisms of confinement , identify a nontrivial physical vacuum sector, and discuss the breaking of symmetries and the existence and role of translationally invariant field operators, etc. Finally, we show that the de Sitter symmetry is naturally inherited by the Neveu-Schwarz massless Dirac field on the cylinder. We then describe the techniques and results of numerical simulations, which indicate that the masses of the first luminous objects are likely to be much larger than that of present-day stars.
Gravitation: From the Hubble Length to the Planck Length fulfills this need by providing an overview of relativistic astrophysics, early universe physics, cosmology, and their interface with particle physics. Also, a canonical quantization of the model which improves the existing ones is derived. Particles with lower mass are even stranger. Topics range from the observational evidence for supermassive black holes and the joint evolution of black holes and galaxies to the cold dark matter paradigm of hierarchical galaxy formation and from the cosmic history of the diffuse intergalactic medium to the ecology of black holes in star clusters. Black holes are among the most mysterious objects that the human mind has been capable of imagining. The three lectures summarizing the quantum aspects of black holes indeed compose a nice almost self-contained review of the quantum aspects of black hole physics.