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The Balkan Wars 1912

the balkan wars 1912 1913 schurman jacob gould

Bulgaria's opportunity for revenge soon arrived. Only one success could possibly be attributed to the diplomacy of the Ballplatz. But the opposition of King Constantine delayed that consummation, directly in the case of Greece, and indirectly in the case of Roumania. He also studied philosophy in Germany. No one could have observed at close range the Balkan Wars of 1912-1913 without perceiving, always in the background and occasionally in the foreground, the colossal rival figures of Russia and Austria-Hungary. The new State has been a powder magazine from the beginning, and since the withdrawal of Prince William of Wied, the government, always powerless, has fallen into chaos. No proof, however, was then available.

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The Balkan Wars 1912

the balkan wars 1912 1913 schurman jacob gould

And he has recently published the fact that at that time—the summer of 1913—the Austro-Hungarian government communicated to the Italian government its intention of making war on Servia and claimed under the terms of the Triple Alliance the co-operation of Italy and Germany. The Italian government repudiated the obligation imputed to it by Austria-Hungary and flatly declared that the Triple Alliance had nothing to do with a war of aggression. And within the last few days Roumania has joined the Allies and declared war against Austria-Hungary. What was only surmise when this volume was written is to-day indubitable certainty. This union and concord marked at least the beginning of political wisdom. Yet in a very real sense their present tragic situation is the nemesis of the political sins of the Balkan nations themselves.

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The Balkan Wars: 1912

the balkan wars 1912 1913 schurman jacob gould

It was upset on May 26, 1916, by a Bulgarian invasion of Greek territory and the seizure of Fort Rupel, one of the keys to the Struma Valley and to eastern Macedonia. It began on July 28 with the declaration of the Dual Monarchy to the effect that from that moment Austria-Hungary was in a state of war with Servia. But the outbreak of the second Balkan War nullified all these fair prospects. And now the result of the Balkan Wars of 1912-1913 was the practical expulsion of Turkey from Europe and the territorial aggrandizement of Servia and the sister state of Montenegro through the annexation of those very Turkish domains which lay between the Austro-Hungarian frontier and the Aegean. Born in 1854 in Freetown, Prince Edward Island, Schurman attended the Prince of Wales College and Acadia College in Nova Scotia, and he graduated in 1877 from the University of London with first class honors in mental and moral science. To-day the Balkan nations are the pawns of the Great Powers who are directly responsible for the deplorable conditions that now exist among them.

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the balkan wars 1912 1913 schurman jacob gould

If the fortunes of war turn and the Entente Powers get the upper hand in the Balkans, these expelled armies of Servia and Montenegro, who after rest and reorganization and re-equipping in Corfu have this summer been transported by France and England to Saloniki, may have the satisfaction of devastating the territory of the sister Slav state of Bulgaria, quite in the divisive and internecine spirit of all Balkan history. That was written seven weeks ago. But this settlement proved scarcely less objectionable to Austria-Hungary than the earlier dream of Servian expansion to the Adriatic by the annexation of the Turkish provinces of Bosnia and Herzegovina. And Austria and Hungary can not get to their outlets on the Adriatic—Trieste and Fiume—without passing through territory inhabited by these South Slavs. Access to the Aegean was not, however, as serious a matter as access to the Adriatic.

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The Balkan Wars 1912

the balkan wars 1912 1913 schurman jacob gould

The racial and national aspirations already astir among the South Slavs of the Dual Monarchy were quickened and intensified by the great victories won by their Servian brethren over both Turks and Bulgarians and by the spectacle of the territorial aggrandizement which accrued from those victories to the independent Kingdom of Servia. The Czar's summons to the Kings of Bulgaria and Servia on June 9, 1913, to submit, in the name of Pan Slavism, their disputes to his decision failed to produce the desired effect, while this assumption of Russian hegemony in Balkan affairs greatly {viii} exacerbated Austro Hungarian sentiment. And as Russia rejoiced over the victory of the Balkan States and the defeat of her secular Mohammedan neighbor, Austria-Hungary looked on not only with amazement but with disappointment and chagrin. The relations of Austria-Hungary to Servia had been acutely strained since October, 1908, when the former annexed the Turkish provinces of Bosnia and Herzegovina, which under the terms of the treaty of Berlin she had been administering since 1878. Turkey is a friend and ally; but even if Turkey were hostile she would have no strength to resist such victorious powers.

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the balkan wars 1912 1913 schurman jacob gould

The exclusion of Servia from the Adriatic Sea and the establishment of the independent State of Albania was the achievement of Count Berchtold, the Austro-Hungarian Minister of Foreign Affairs. Everybody expected a victory for the Turks. These motives had subsequently been much intensified by the triumph of Servia over Bulgaria in the second Balkan War. This Slav state after the war against Turkey came under the influence of Austria-Hungary, by whom she was undoubtedly incited to strife with Servia and her other partners in the late war against Turkey. The history of the world, which is also the high tribunal of the world, proves that no nation can with impunity ignore the rights of other nations or repudiate the ideal of a common good or defy the rule of righteousness by which political communities achieve it—justice, moderation, and the spirit of hopeful and unwearying conciliation.

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The Balkan Wars by Jacob Gould Schurman · OverDrive (Rakuten OverDrive): eBooks, audiobooks and videos for libraries

the balkan wars 1912 1913 schurman jacob gould

Or is there any truth in the charge that King Ferdinand, after a long consultation with the Austro-Hungarian Minister, instructed the General to issue the order? That the Turks should one day be driven out of Europe was the universal assumption, but it was the equally fixed belief that the agents of their expulsion would be the Great Powers or some of the Great Powers. That Russia should have come to the support of Servia was as easy to foresee as any future political event whatever. The changes made in the map of Europe by the Balkan Wars of 1912-1913 were not merely the occasion but a cause and probably the most potent, and certainly the most urgent, of all the causes that led to the World War which has been raging with such titanic fury since the summer of 1914. In 1904 a state appropriation established the New York State College of Agriculture at Cornell. Indeed, in that event, German trade and German political influence would spread unchallenged across the continents from the North Sea to the Persian Gulf and the Indian Ocean. But the only result was to bring to an end the co-operation which had for some years been maintained between the Austrian and Russian governments in the enforcement upon the Porte of the adoption of reforms in Macedonia. If on the other hand the Allies come out victorious in the War of Many Nations, Servia and perhaps Roumania would be permitted to annex the provinces occupied by their brethren in the Dual Monarchy and Servian expansion to the Adriatic would be assured.

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The Balkan Wars 1912

the balkan wars 1912 1913 schurman jacob gould

But while Russia was victorious she did not gain all that she had planned and hoped for. In 1912-1913 the first war showed Bulgaria, Greece, Montenegro, and Servia allied against Turkey; and in the second war Greece, Montenegro, and Servia were joined by Roumania in the war against Bulgaria, who was also independently attacked by Turkey. At every point Austro-Hungarian policies had met with reverses. Servia might perhaps have governed the country, had she not been compelled by the Great Powers, at the instigation of Austria-Hungary, to withdraw her forces. It would not be surprising if Greece were any day now to follow the example of Roumania. Russia was unable to prevent the second Balkan war between the Allies. The Cornell Medical College was established in 1898, and a new building was constructed in New York City.

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The Balkan Wars: 1912

the balkan wars 1912 1913 schurman jacob gould

The diplomacy of Vienna had indeed succeeded in excluding Servia from the Adriatic but it had neither prevented its territorial aggrandizement nor blocked its access to the Aegean. And her extrusion from the Adriatic threw her back toward the Aegean, with the result of shutting Bulgaria out of Central Macedonia, which was annexed by Greece and Servia presumably under arrangements satisfactory to the latter for an outlet to the sea at Saloniki. Fortunately also such prediction has no place in an account of the Balkan Wars of 1912-1913. His policy was to go loyally to the assistance of Servia, as required by the treaty between the two countries; to defend New Greece against Bulgaria, to whom, however, he was ready to make some concessions on the basis of a quid pro quo; and to join and co-operate actively with the Entente Powers on the assurance of receiving territorial compensation in Asia Minor. And a terrible punishment was inflicted on her. And Bulgaria, who brought it on, found herself encircled by enemies, including not only all her recent Allies against Turkey, but also Turkey herself, and even Roumania, who had remained a neutral spectator of the first Balkan War. Intervention on the part of neighboring states is inevitable.

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Jacob Gould Schurman

the balkan wars 1912 1913 schurman jacob gould

Her very triumph at Bukarest was a proof that she had lost her influence over Bulgaria. In 1912 and 1913, during the Balkan Wars, he was minister to Greece and Montenegro. It began on July 28 with the declaration of the Dual Monarchy {vi} to the effect that from that moment Austria Hungary was in a state of war with Servia. Then she turned toward the Aegean, and the second Balkan War gave her a new opportunity. Is it for this that our mobilization is maintained? President: 1892 to 1920 In 1886 Jacob Gould Schurman came to Cornell University as professor of Christian ethics and moral philosophy, and in 1890 he was named to head the Susan Linn Sage School of Philosophy at Cornell.

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